Young Cuban Discusses the Many Problems of His Country

Abraham Jiménez Enoa, a young Cuban journalist, in a New York Times article, has commented on the many problems of his country.[1]

An overarching problem is a declining and aging population. Now Cuba has the largest population of people 60 and over in Latin America and by 2030 the government projects almost one-third of the population will be at least 60.[2]

This aging population and other problems, he claims, are “the consequences of dictatorship — authoritarianism, repression and a failed economic model,” which “never departed from the orthodox doctrines it inherited from the Soviet Union. Many young Cubans are fleeing as part of a large export of human capital. “This is an undeniable defeat for the Castro regime. It also means we are facing a future in limbo: Either the dictatorship fails, or the island will become a nation of elderly people.”

On the other hand, the author finds signs of hope. Now Cuba has public Wi-Fi, which “has reconfigured society by allowing citizens to express themselves freely on its platforms and feel empowered. An alternative to the official voice imposed for years has emerged. Dissent is moving beyond the online world and materializing in real life.”[3]

This January, for example, many people spontaneously and immediately turned “out in droves” to help fellow Cubans devastated by a tornado in Havana.  The following month’s constitutional referendum saw more than two million Cubans abstaining from voting or voting “No” or leaving their ballots blank.[4] There also have been public protests and advocacy of various opinions.

Unlike many of his contemporaries, Senor Enoa has chosen to remain on the island. He says, “Those of us who stay must maintain an open struggle against an authoritarian government. The only way to change the future is to keep raising our voices and march against the long-lived revolutionary system.”


[1] Enoa, I’m Young, Cuban and Staying to Fight, N.Y. Times (July 3, 3019).

[2] See also, e.g., Cuba’s Success and Problems with Aging, Declining Population, (Mar. 10, 2019); Cuba’s Negative Population Trends Continue, (May 13, 2019).

[3]  This observation about Internet access and dissent on the island provides another perspective from that of the U.S. Cuba Internet Task Force’s Final Report that was covered in a recent post.

[4]  See, e.g., Cuban Citizens Approve New Constitution, (Feb. 26, 2019)



U.S. and Cuba Exchange Insults Over Cuba’s Constitutional Referendum

As reported in a prior post, on February 24, Cuba held a referendum with 6.8 million “YES” votes (78.6% of eligible registered voters) approving a new constitution for the island.

Pompeo’s Statement

Two days later, U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo issued a statement entitled “Cuba’s So-Called Referendum.” [1] It said the following:

  • “On February 24, the Cuban communist regime held what it called a “national referendum” on revisions to its constitution. No one should be fooled by this exercise, which achieves little beyond perpetuating the pretext for the regime’s one-party dictatorship. The entire process has been marked by carefully managed political theater and repression of public debate.”
  • “The new constitution primarily affirms the Communist Party’s role as the only legal political party and decrees the socialist system “irrevocable,” blocking the possibility of desperately needed economic reform. This document also fails to guarantee the Cuban people their fundamental freedoms.”
  • “While the regime claims Sunday’s vote was democratic, Cuban authorities harassed and detained dozens of observers and peaceful protestors, confiscating phones and devices. Earlier this month more than 120 activists initiated a hunger strike to send a message to the regime that the Cuban people reject these oppressive tactics. We strongly condemn these attempts to silence peaceful protests, which show that Cuba’s leaders fear the Cuban people.”
  • “The United States continues to stand with Cubans who have suffered for 60 years the revolution’s failed political system and economic mismanagement. We believe that history is on the side of the brave Cuban people, and that this hemisphere is a region where democracy, freedom, and human dignity reign supreme. We urge the democracies of the world to join us in standing with the people of Cuba and their peaceful calls for democratic reform.”

Cuba’s Response

Cuba strongly rejected  Pompeo’s “disrespectful statement,” which, Cuba said, is “an expression of the imperialist ideas which are deeply rooted in the foreign policy of the current US administration . . . [and] a reflection of the already announced desire to impose once again, in the western hemisphere, the Monroe Doctrine, accompanied now by some McCarthyist intolerance.” Moreover, the Cuban statement also said the Cuban people expressed “their will in a massive way, despite the pernicious campaign launched by the United States which was intended to influence their vote.  It’s been long since we Cubans decided to frustrate every US attempt to govern our country’s destiny.”

Finally, the Cuban Foreign Ministry stated, the U.S. “should put an end to the practice of interfering in the internal affairs of other States and the electoral or voting processes of other nations.  This is a weird habit that is contrary to International Law, with which the US government defies the norms that govern relations among sovereign States.”


There are legitimate grounds for the U.S. asserting that the new constitution makes the Cuban Communist Party the only legal political party and the socialist system  “irreversible.” In addition, there is evidence that the Cuban government harassed and detained critics of the new constitution.[3] But it is hardly diplomatic for the U.S. to say that this was a “so-called referendum.”

Cuba, on the other hand, had legitimate grounds for its criticism of the Pompeo statement. But, in this blogger’s opinion, Cuba went overboard in calling that statement an Interference in Cuba’s internal affairs that was contrary to international law.


[1] State Dep’t, Cuba’s So-Called Referendum (Feb. 26, 2019).

[2] Cuba Foreign Ministry, Declaration by the Foreign Ministry of Cuba (Feb. 26, 2019). 

[3] See Cuba Arrests Opponents of Proposed New Constitution, (Feb. 14, 2019); Cuban Citizens Approve New Constitution, (Feb. 26, 2019).