Abraham Jiménez Enoa, a young Cuban journalist, in a New York Times article, has commented on the many problems of his country.
An overarching problem is a declining and aging population. Now Cuba has the largest population of people 60 and over in Latin America and by 2030 the government projects almost one-third of the population will be at least 60.
This aging population and other problems, he claims, are “the consequences of dictatorship — authoritarianism, repression and a failed economic model,” which “never departed from the orthodox doctrines it inherited from the Soviet Union. Many young Cubans are fleeing as part of a large export of human capital. “This is an undeniable defeat for the Castro regime. It also means we are facing a future in limbo: Either the dictatorship fails, or the island will become a nation of elderly people.”
On the other hand, the author finds signs of hope. Now Cuba has public Wi-Fi, which “has reconfigured society by allowing citizens to express themselves freely on its platforms and feel empowered. An alternative to the official voice imposed for years has emerged. Dissent is moving beyond the online world and materializing in real life.”
This January, for example, many people spontaneously and immediately turned “out in droves” to help fellow Cubans devastated by a tornado in Havana. The following month’s constitutional referendum saw more than two million Cubans abstaining from voting or voting “No” or leaving their ballots blank. There also have been public protests and advocacy of various opinions.
Unlike many of his contemporaries, Senor Enoa has chosen to remain on the island. He says, “Those of us who stay must maintain an open struggle against an authoritarian government. The only way to change the future is to keep raising our voices and march against the long-lived revolutionary system.”
 See also, e.g., Cuba’s Success and Problems with Aging, Declining Population, dwkcommentaries.com (Mar. 10, 2019); Cuba’s Negative Population Trends Continue, dwkcommentaries.com (May 13, 2019).