International “Tribunal” Rules U.S. Embargo (Blockade) of Cuba Violates International Law  

On November 17, 2023, the “judges” on the so-called International Tribunal Against the Blockade of Cuba decided that the U.S. embargo (“blockade”) of Cuba violates international Law and universal norms for peaceful coexistence. They also stressed that the blockade violates the UN Charter, which enshrines the sovereignty of the countries, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and agreements of the World Trade Organization, among other norms.

It also should be noted that the U.S. was not a party to this proceeding and that the “tribunal urged” the United States to end the blockade against Cuba and compensate affected companies and citizens.”(emphasis added).[1]

The “judges” presiding over the tribunal included Norman Peach, a German International Law expert; Dimitris Kaltsonis, a professor and member of the Democratic Jurists Society; Ricardo Joao Duarte, a member of the Lawyers College of Portugal; Suzanne Adely, president of the National Lawyers Guild;  Daniela Dahn, writer and journalist; and Simone Dioguiardi, International Law specialist.

The “prosecutors” in this proceeding were Jan Fermon of the Lawyers College of Brussels, Nana Gyamfi of the National Conference of Black Lawyers of the United States, and Antonio Segura of the Lawyers College of Madrid.

In addition to the prosecution’s arguments, the “judges” heard oral and written arguments from Members of the European Parliament, members of European and Cuban civil society, scientists, Cuba solidarity activists, representatives of the business community in Europe, Cuban cancer patients, journalists, feminist activists, and many others whose lives and livelihoods have been impacted by the many different components of the U.S. blockade on Cuba.

The “tribunal,” which held its hearing in the European Parliament in Brussels, Belgium, was organized by the Cuban Institute of Friendship with the Peoples and The Left, a parliamentary group in the European Parliament.


Although this blogger is a retired U.S. attorney with some experience in international law and believes that the U.S. embargo (blockade) of Cuba has been and is a stupid U.S. policy that is probably illegal under international law, he objects to the self-identification of the group that conducted this proceeding as an international tribunal.


[1] International tribunal finds US blockade of Cuba in violation of international law, peoples dispatch (Nov. 17, 2023); Court rules that blockade of Cuba violates international law, Granma (Nov. 17, 2023).



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As a retired lawyer and adjunct law professor, Duane W. Krohnke has developed strong interests in U.S. and international law, politics and history. He also is a Christian and an active member of Minneapolis’ Westminster Presbyterian Church. His blog draws from these and other interests. He delights in the writing freedom of blogging that does not follow a preordained logical structure. The ex post facto logical organization of the posts and comments is set forth in the continually being revised “List of Posts and Comments–Topical” in the Pages section on the right side of the blog.

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